30 Python Programming Interview Question for Freshers

30 Python Programming Interview Question for Freshers

Introduction

Python remains one of the most popular and versatile programming languages, making it a top choice for many companies. As a fresher, preparing for a Python programming interview can be daunting, but we’ve got you covered. Here are the top 30 Python interview questions that will help you ace your interview.

1. What is Python?

Python was created and first released in 1991 by Guido van Rossum. It is a high-level, general-purpose programming language emphasizing code readability and providing easy-to-use syntax. Several developers and programmers prefer using Python for their programming needs due to its simplicity. After 30 years, Van Rossum stepped down as the leader of the community in 2018. 

Python interpreters are available for many operating systems. CPython, the reference implementation of Python, is open-source software and has a community-based development model, as do nearly all of its variant implementations. The non-profit Python Software Foundation manages Python and CPython.

What is Python

2. What are the advantages of Python?

Python is a general-purpose dynamic programming language that is high-level and interpreted. Its architectural framework prioritizes code readability and utilizes indentation extensively.

  • Third-party modules are present.
  • Several support libraries are available (NumPy for numerical calculations, Pandas for data analytics, etc)
  • Community development and open source
  • Adaptable, simple to read, learn, and write
  • Data structures that are pretty easy to work on
  • High-level language
  • The language that is dynamically typed (No need to mention data type based on the value assigned, it takes data type)
  • Object-oriented programming language
  • Interactive and transportable
  • Ideal for prototypes since it allows you to add additional features with minimal code.
  • Highly Effective
  • Internet of Things (IoT) Possibilities
  • Portable Interpreted Language across Operating Systems
  • Since it is an interpreted language it executes any code line by line and throws an error if it finds something missing.
  • Python is free to use and has a large open-source community.
  • Python has a lot of support for libraries that provide numerous functions for doing any task at hand.
  • One of the best features of Python is its portability: it can and does run on any platform without having to change the requirements.
  • Provides a lot of functionality in lesser lines of code compared to other programming languages like Java, C++, etc.

3. What are Python's key features?

Easy to Learn and Use: Python is simple and straightforward, making it easy to learn.

  • Interpreted Language: Python is processed at runtime by the interpreter.
  • Dynamically Typed: You don’t need to declare the type of variable.
  • Object-Oriented: Python supports object-oriented programming.
  • Extensive Libraries: Python has a vast standard library

4. What kinds of applications can Python be used for?

Python is utilized in several software domains, some of which are listed below.

  • Games for the web and the internet Development of scientific and computational applications Language development
  • Applications for image processing and graphic design Development of enterprise and business applications
  • Development of operating systems graphical user interface (GUI) based desktop applications.
  • Development of web applications Django, Pyramid, and Flask are the most well-known Python web frameworks.
  • Processing e-mail, FTP, IMAP, and other Internet protocols are supported by Python’s standard library.
  • SciPy and NumPy, two Python modules, aid in the creation of scientific and computational applications.
  • Python’s Tkinter library supports to make a work area based GUI applications.

5. What is PEP 8?

The Python Enhancement Proposal, also known as PEP 8, is a document that provides instructions on how to write Python code. In essence, it is a set of guidelines for formatting Python code for maximum readability. Guido van Rossum, Barry Warsaw, and Nick Coghlan wrote it in 2001.

PEP 8 covers various aspects of Python code formatting, including:

  1. Indentation
  2. Whitespace
  3. Name Conventions
  4. Line Lengths
  5. Comments
  6. Imports
  7. Functions and Method Definition
  8. Whitespaces in Expressions and Statements
5. What is PEP 8?

6. Describe the Python Functions?

The Python functions are named blocks of code which perform a single operation. They are defined by the `def` keyword, which is followed by a function name, parameters inside parentheses, and a colon Within the body of the function, the code that gets executed when the function is invoked is indented. Functions can take input arguments, carry out operations and optionally return the results by using the ‘return’ statement. They encourage code reusability, organization, and abstraction.

Functions fall into three categories:

Built-In Functions: duplicate(), len(), count() are the a few implicit capabilities.

User-defined Functions: User-defined functions are functions that are defined by a user.

Anonymous functions: Because they are not declared using the standard def keyword, these functions are also referred to as lambda functions.

7. What is zip() capability in Python?

The zip() function in Python returns a zip object that maps an identical index across multiple containers. It takes an iterable, transforms it into an iterator, and then uses the passed iterables to combine the elements. It returns a tuple iterator.

Signature zip(iterator1, iterator2, iterator3, etc.) Parameters iterator1, iterator2, and iterator3: These are joined-together iterator objects.

Return It returns a iterator that is the product of two or more iterators.

7. What is zip() capability in Python?

8. What is Python's paramter passing system?

In Python, there are two mechanisms for passing parameters:

  • Pass by references
  • Pass by value

By default, all arguments (parameters) are passed to the functions “by reference.” In this manner, in the event that you change the worth of the boundary inside a capability, the change is reflected in the calling capability too. It shows the first factor. For instance, if a variable is passed to a function with the declaration “a = 10” and its value is changed to “a = 20,” The same value is represented by both variables.

The pass by esteem is that at whatever point we pass the contentions to the capability just qualities pass to the capability, no reference passes to the capability. It makes it unchangeable, or immutable. The original value of either variable remains the same despite being modified in the function.

Python has a default contention idea which assists with calling a technique utilizing an erratic number of contentions.

9. In Python, how do you overload methods or constructors?

In Python method and constructor overloading are supported like they are in languages like Java or C++. However, you can achieve similar functionality using various techniques like:

  • By Using Default Arguments.
  • By Using Variable Arguments.
  • By Using Function Arguments.
9. In Python, how do you overload methods or constructors?

10. How to remove whitespaces from a string in Python?

To eliminate the whitespaces and following spaces from the string, Python provides strip([str]) worked in capability. After removing any whitespaces that may be present, this function returns a copy of the string. If not, returns the original string.

11. What is tuple in python?

A built-in type of data collection is the tuple. It permits us to store values in a grouping. Because it cannot be changed, the original data do not reflect any changes. A tuple is created with () brackets rather than [] square brackets. We are unable to remove any element, but we can locate it in the tuple. Indexing allows us to obtain elements. It likewise permits navigating components in switch request by utilizing negative ordering. There are a variety of Tuple methods, including Len(), max(), sum(), and sorted().

12. What are the benefits of using Python language as a tool in the present scenario?

The following are the benefits of using Python language:

  • Object-Oriented Language
  • High-Level Language
  • Dynamically Typed language
  • Extensive support Libraries
  • Presence of third-party modules
  • Open source and community development
  • Portable and Interactive
  • Portable across Operating systems
What are the benefits of using Python language as a tool in the present scenario?

13. Is Python a compiled language or an interpreted language?

Actually, Python is a partially compiled language and partially interpreted language. The compilation part is done first when we execute our code and this will generate byte code internally this byte code gets converted by the Python virtual machine(p.v.m) according to the underlying platform(machine+operating system).

13. Is Python a compiled language or an interpreted language?

14. How are arguments passed by value or by reference in Python?

Everything in Python is an object and all variables hold references to the objects. The reference values are according to the functions; as a result, you cannot change the value of the references. However, you can change the objects if it is mutable.

15. What is a pass in Python?

Python remains one of the most popular and versatile programming languages, making it a top choice for many companies. As a fresher, preparing for a Python programming interview can be daunting, but we’ve got you covered. Here are the top 30 Python interview questions that will help you ace your interview.

What is a pass in Python?

16. How is Exceptional handling done in Python?

There are 3 main keywords i.e. try, except, and finally which are used to catch exceptions and handle the recovering mechanism accordingly. Try is the block of a code that is monitored for errors. Except block gets executed when an error occurs.

The beauty of the final block is to execute the code after trying for an error. This block gets executed irrespective of whether an error occurred or not. Finally, block is used to do the required cleanup activities of objects/variables.

17. Difference between for loop and while loop in Python?

The “for” Loop is generally used to iterate through the elements of various collection types such as List, Tuple, Set, and Dictionary. Developers use a “for” loop where they have both the conditions start and the end. Whereas, the “while” loop is the actual looping feature that is used in any other programming language. Programmers use a Python while loop where they just have the end conditions.

Difference between for loop and while loop in Python?

18. Can we Pass a function as an argument in Python?

Yes, Several arguments can be passed to a function, including objects, variables (of the same or distinct data types), and functions. Functions can be passed as parameters to other functions because they are objects. Higher-order functions are functions that can take other functions as arguments

19. Is Indentation Required in Python?

Yes, indentation is required in Python. A Python interpreter can be informed that a group of statements belongs to a specific block of code by using Python indentation. Indentations make the code easy to read for developers in all programming languages but in Python, it is very important to indent the code in a specific order.

19. Is Indentation Required in Python?

20. What is Scope in Python?

The location where we can find a variable and also access it if required is called the scope of a variable.

  • Python Local variable: Local variables are those that are initialized within a function and are unique to that function. It cannot be accessed outside of the function.
  • Python Global variables: Global variables are the ones that are defined and declared outside any function and are not specified to any function.
  • Module-level scope: It refers to the global objects of the current module accessible in the program.
  • Outermost scope: It refers to any built-in names that the program can call. The name referenced is located last among the objects in this scope.

21. What is docstring in Python?

Python documentation strings (or docstrings) provide a convenient way of associating documentation with Python modules, functions, classes, and methods.

 

Declaring Docstrings: The docstrings are declared using ”’triple single quotes”’ or “””triple double quotes””” just below the class, method, or function declaration. All functions should have a docstring.

Accessing Docstrings: The docstrings can be accessed using the __doc__ method of the object or using the help functio

21. What is docstring in Python?

22. What is a dynamically typed language?

Typed languages are the languages in which we define the type of data type and it will be known by the machine at the compile-time or at runtime. Typed languages can be classified into two categories:

  • Statically typed languages: In this type of language, the data type of a variable is known at the compile time which means the programmer has to specify the data type of a variable at the time of its declaration. 
  • Dynamically typed languages: These are the languages that do not require any pre-defined data type for any variable as it is interpreted at runtime by the machine itself. In these languages, interpreters assign the data type to a variable at runtime depending on its value.

23. What are Built-in data types in Python?

The following are the standard or built-in data types in Python:

  • Numeric: The numeric data type in Python represents the data that has a numeric value. A numeric value can be an integer, a floating number, a Boolean, or even a complex number.
  • Sequence Type: The sequence Data Type in Python is the ordered collection of similar or different data types. 

There are several sequence types in Python:

        • Python String
        • Python List
        • Python Tuple
        • Python range
  • Mapping Types: In Python, hashable data can be mapped to random objects using a mapping object. There is currently only one common mapping type, the dictionary, and mapping objects are mutable. 
        • Python Dictionary  
  • Set Types: In Python, a Set is an unordered collection of data types that is iterable, mutable, and has no duplicate elements. The order of elements in a set is undefined though it may consist of various elements.

24. What is the difference between xrange and range functions?

range() and xrange() are two functions that could be used to iterate a certain number of times in for loops in Python. In Python 3, there is no xrange, but the range function behaves like xrange in Python 2.

 

  • range() – This returns a list of numbers created using the range() function.
  • xrange() – This function returns the generator object that can be used to display numbers only by looping. The only particular range is displayed on demand and hence called lazy evaluation.a
What is the difference between xrange and range functions?

25. What Are *args and *kwargs?

*args

  • It is used in a function prototype to accept a varying number of arguments.
  • It’s an iterable object. 
  • Usage – def fun(*args)

*kwargs 

  • It is used in a function prototype to accept the varying number of keyworded arguments.
  • It’s an iterable object
  • Usage – def fun(kwargs):
  • fun(colour=”red”.units=2)

26. What Is the Output Of: Print(__name__)? Justify Your Answer.

__name__ is a special variable that holds the name of the current module. Program execution starts from main or code with 0 indentations. Thus, __name__ has a value __main__ in the above case. If the file is imported from another module, __name__ holds the name of this module.

26. What Is the Output Of: Print(__name__)? Justify Your Answer.

27. Why do we need break and continue in Python?

Both break and continue are statements that control flow in Python loops. break stops the current loop from executing further and transfers the control to the next block. continue jumps to the next iteration of the loop without exhausting it.

28. What is Python good for?

Python is a jack of many trades, check out Applications of Python to find out more.

Meanwhile, we’ll say we can use it for:

  • Web and Internet Development
  • Desktop GUI
  • Scientific and Numeric Applications
  • Software Development Applications
  • Applications in Education
  • Applications in Business
  • Database Access
  • Network Programming
  • Games, 3D Graphics
  • Other Python Applications
What is Python good for?

29. Can you explain the life cycle of a thread?

  • To create a thread, we create a class that we make override the run method of the thread class. Then, we instantiate it.
  • A thread that we just created is in the new state. When we make a call to start() on it, it forwards the threads for scheduling. These are in the ready state.
  • When execution begins, the thread is in the running state.
  • Calls to methods like sleep() and join() make a thread wait. Such a thread is in the waiting/blocked state.
  • When a thread is done waiting or executing, other waiting threads are sent for scheduling.
  • A running thread that is done executing terminates and is in the dead state.

30. What is Cython?

Cython is a programming language that helps you write C extensions for Python. It speeds up Python code by compiling it into C/C++ code. By adding type declarations, Cython can achieve C-like performance, making it ideal for computational-heavy tasks and integrating C/C++ libraries with Python.

Key Points:

  • Performance: Significantly speeds up execution of Python code.
  • Syntax: Similar to Python, with additional keywords for C data types.
  • Use Cases: Scientific computing, data analysis, and performance-critical applications.
30. What is Cython?

31. Differentiate between List and Tuple?

Let’s analyze the differences between List and Tuple:

List

  • Lists are Mutable datatype.
  • Lists consume more memory
  • The list is better for performing operations, such as insertion and deletion.
  • The implication of iterations is Time-consuming

Tuple

  • Tuples are Immutable datatype.
  • Tuple consumes less memory as compared to the list
  • A Tuple data type is appropriate for accessing the elements
  • The implication of iterations is comparatively Faster

Conclusion

In summary, this blog covers a comprehensive list of 30 essential Python programming interview questions for freshers. Key points include:

  1. Introduction to Python: Overview of Python’s history, advantages, key features, and applications.
  2. Basic Concepts: Understanding of PEP 8, Python functions, parameter passing, method overloading, and string manipulation.
  3. Data Structures: Insights into tuples, lists, and other built-in data types.
  4. Advanced Topics: Explanation of scope, docstrings, dynamic typing, exception handling, thread life cycle, and Cython.
  5. Practical Applications: Real-world uses of Python in web development, scientific computing, and other domains.

To excel in your Python programming interview, it’s crucial to practice these concepts and understand their applications thoroughly. Review the questions, write code snippets, and explore additional resources to solidify your knowledge. Remember, consistent practice and preparation are key to acing your interview and landing your desired job in Python programming. Good luck!

Encouragement:  As you prepare for your Python programming interviews, remember that consistent practice and a solid grasp of fundamental concepts will pave your way to success. Engage in solving diverse coding challenges, participate actively in coding competitions, and embark on projects to apply your skills practically. Your dedication to learning and honing your Python skills will undoubtedly shine through in your interviews. Best of luck with your preparation, and may you achieve your career goals!

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